Hong Yin



Volume II









(English Translation Version B)


Li Hongzhi




Table of Contents


Steadfast 4

Untitled. 5

Seeing True Nature. 6

The Heart Itself Is Clear 7

Retribution. 8

Fa Net 9

Rectifying the Immense Firmament 10

Universal Illumination. 11

Eliminate Evil 12

Nothingness. 13

Pause to Think. 14

On the Journey. 15

Settling the Great Havoc. 16

Obtain Dao, Be Enlightened. 17

No Confusion. 18

Journeying in Dao. 19

Discarding Attachments. 20

No Obstacles. 21

Predestiny Forms and the Lotus Blooms. 22

Gradual Culmination. 23

Words of Truth. 24

Autumn Wind Is Cold. 25

Foretelling. 26

Great Dao Journeys. 27

Havoc. 28

Sweep Away. 29

Inevitable. 30

Washing Away. 31

The Big Stage. 32

A Play. 33

Advance Wholeheartedly, Enlighten Righteously. 34

Fa Rectifies the Cosmos. 35

Dafa Is Good. 36

Bell Tower 37

Drum Tower 38

Buddha Fa Is Boundless. 39

Entering the Gate of No-Life. 40

Tathagata. 41

Righteous Thought, Righteous Action. 42

The Path to Divinity Is Difficult 43

Righteous Gods. 44

The Sky Is Clear Again. 45

Shock and Frighten. 46

Hurry Up and Speak. 47

Clear-Headed. 48

Who Is in the Maze. 49

The Net Is Closing. 50

Return. 51

The Might of God. 52

Surround and Exterminate. 53

Plum Blossoms. 54

Descending to Earth. 55

Dafa’s Journey. 56

In One Thought 57

Tang Wind. 58

Watch Carefully. 59

Reading Students’ Articles. 60

Turbulent Times. 61

From the View of Fa-Rectification. 62

Expedition. 63

Be Rational, Awaken. 64

A Diamond Will 65

Fa Rectifies All Things. 66

The Temple of Dragon Spring. 67

Dafa Disciples. 68

Falun Turns Constantly. 69

Solemn Vow, Great Wish. 70

Save the Vast Firmament 71

Inexorable Doom.. 72

Danger 73

Lotus. 74

Severing. 75

Fragrant Lotus. 76

When Fa Rectifies the Human World. 77

Stupidity. 78

Don’t Be Sad. 79

Waist-Drum Team.. 80

Difficulty. 81

Master-Disciple Grace. 82

Gods Awaken. 83

Gates of Heaven Are Already Open. 84

What’s There to Fear 85

The Rotating Wheel 86

The Great Kalpa. 87







Those who enlighten, transcending the world, are revered

Those who earnestly cultivate, sincerely believe in reaching Consummation

In the midst of great tribulation, one should be steadfast

The will to advance wholeheartedly cannot be altered


May 3, 1999

Modified in February 2004




Dafa looks at a person’s heart

Worldly people should be clear-headed

God, human, ghost, animal, extinction

Each one determines his own position


May 3, 1999

Modified in February 2004

Seeing True Nature


Firmly cultivating Dafa, the heart unmoved

Upgrading levels is fundamental

In the face of tests, true nature is seen

Gong is formed, Consummation is reached—Buddha, Dao, God


May 8, 1999

The Heart Itself Is Clear


Fa saves all beings, Master guides the voyage

One sail rises, a hundred million sails are hoisted

With attachments set down, the light boats are swift

With a heavy human heart, crossing the ocean is difficult

Wind and clouds suddenly change, the sky is about to fall

Mountains topple, seas churn, fierce waves roll

Firmly cultivate Dafa, closely follow Master

With attachments too heavy, bearings are lost

Boats capsize, masts break, [people] flee for their lives

Mud and sand are washed away, gold shines forth

Life and death is not boastful talk

Able to act or not—the truth is seen

Wait ‘til the day when Consummation comes—

The truth grandly displayed, the whole world stunned


Li Hongzhi

October 12, 1999

(Published on May 22, 2000)




At the end of this era, rotten ghosts abound

Cloaked in human skin, they perform

Once all partitions are cleared away

In this world, the cauldron of boiling oil is set


September 1, 2000

The fourth day of the eighth month, the Year of Geng Chen in the lunar calendar.

Fa Net


Clear wisdom[1] rescues the predestined

New life[2] can cleanse one’s brain of evil

People’s[3] sharp pens cause the ghosts to worry

Falun Dafa[4] is pure insight[5]


January 17, 2001

The 23rd day of the 12th month, the Year of Geng Chen in the lunar calendar.


Rectifying the Immense Firmament


How much longer evil runs rampant
Fully reflects the will of all beings
This havoc—who is outside of it?
Laughing and watching the foolishness of deities

February 10, 2001
The 18th day of the first month, the Year of Xin Si in the lunar calendar

Universal Illumination


Gods and Buddhas walk in the world

Evil hearts start to worry

In this chaotic world, Dafa is the solution

Stopping society’s downward slide


February 17, 2001

The 25th day of the first month, the Year of Xin Si in the lunar calendar

Eliminate Evil


Riding chariots a hundred thousand miles

Brandishing swords, ridding evil in a flash

Upright palms support the falling sky

Fa-rectification clears away the gloom


February 19, 2001

The twenty-seventh day of the first month of the Year of Xin Si in the lunar calendar



Not nothingness, not emptiness, not anything

No goodness, no evilness, beyond the utmost

Moving forward, hundreds of millions of things can form

Moving backward, completely nothing remains, forever a mystery


February 22, 2001

Pause to Think


A journey of dust, a journey of wind

Myriad evils weeded out, myriad beings brought to life

Laboring the heart, striving to resolve deep rancor

It’s hard to have a light heart and look at scenery


February 22, 2001

On the Journey


Within the furthest reaches, where is it most steep

Look at the sky within the canyon

Where can immortals be found

Face to face, not recognizing them


February 22, 2001

At the Grand Canyon, USA

Settling the Great Havoc


How many chaotic affairs in the human world

Gratitude and resentment experienced over and over

Wicked hearts with massive karma are doomed

Dafa settles everything from the origin


February 22, 2001

Obtain Dao, Be Enlightened


A dynasty’s emperor, a dynasty’s people

Dynasty after dynasty, predestination established, waiting for Fa

Heed not things about predestiny in any given dynasty

Reach Consummation, return home, everything will be clear


February 24, 2001

No Confusion


Who is the lord of heaven

Realm after realm, beings stray from Fa

Each claiming to rule the firmament

Time draws nigh for returning to position

Let’s see who is still muddleheaded


March 14, 2001

Journeying in Dao


Great Dao journeys in the world

Rescues beings in the maze

Washing away attachments to fame, sentiment, and gain

What hardship can hinder the divine


March 19, 2001

Discarding Attachments


Although cultivation matters are discussed

Attachments of the heart must be discarded

What is given up is not one’s self

It’s all foolishness in the maze


April 16, 2001

The 23rd day of the third month, the Year of Xin Si in the lunar calendar

No Obstacles


Cultivation paths are different

Yet all are within Dafa

With no attachment to anything

The path underfoot is naturally clear


April 16, 2001

The 23rd of the third month, the Year of Xin Si in the lunar calendar

Predestiny Forms and the Lotus Blooms


The truly great men, where are they now

Dafa begins to spread, one after another they come

Many, many years—a hundred, a thousand times over

Predestiny bears the Right Fruit, all lotus flowers bloom


June 19, 2001

Gradual Culmination


Amidst violent rolling billows, a wisp of rosy glow is seen

All fated calamities are already culminating

The Fa of the cosmos is rectified, heaven and earth is stabilized

Returning to the human world, picking ticks and nits


July 17, 2001

Words of Truth


Gods and Buddhas come to the world

Sentence after sentence, uttering words of truth

Affairs of heaven, earth, humans, and gods

True secrets are spread for Fa


August 19, 2001

Autumn Wind Is Cold


Evil wicked ones, don’t rush into violent action

For it’s down to the boiling water when heaven and earth are clear again

With fists and feet, it’s hard to move human hearts

Violent winds bring an autumn that’s even colder


October 25, 2001



Autumn still lingers, spring is already here

Humans doubt, yet everything has come

The sky gapes open, the great earth burns

Evil hides, evildoers flee

Gong gushes in, ghosts wail and howl

Dafa disciples, ascending to the ninth heaven[6]

Preside over heaven and earth and rectify the human way


December 30, 2001

Great Dao Journeys


Raising the eyes to gaze at blue skies

From the macro to the micro, all are eyes

From above and below, at the point of focus

Great Dao journeys in the human world


January 15, 2002



Dim, dim dark clouds, murky for several days

Severe cold is completely gone, spring is already seen

Living beings awaken and see heart-stirring things

The Central Plains[7] is half covered by sand and dust


January 22, 2002

Sweep Away


Dark clouds pass, winds remain strong

Red Dragon is beheaded, humans remain lost

Where there is vicious evil, there is dark dense haze

Dafa disciples, one palm upright

Purge remaining evil, righteous thoughts arise

Speak the truth, rescue all beings

Extinguish evil completely, sweep the entire cosmos


January 23, 2002



Masses of evil descend together—what madness

Massive lies, deceiving the world, overturn the heavens

In the play, buffoons let loose their frenzy

Foils to Dafa, then down to the boiling water they go


January 30, 2002

Washing Away


The sky collapses, the earth overturns, sand and dust fall

Poisoning the human world, several hundred million people

Who knows how many compassion rescues and saves

Everywhere in the Central Plains, more new graves


January 31, 2002

The Big Stage


The human world of five thousand years –

the Central Plains is the stage.

Hearts are captivated by the story in the play –

brilliant colors, how pretty.

Waking, looking at each other—

the stage is set for Fa.


February 1, 2002

A Play


Heaven serves as the curtain, earth is the stage,

The universe moves, heaven and earth open.

Everything down through the ages, all came for Fa,

Falun spins off the new Three Gifts.[8]


February 5, 2002

Advance Wholeheartedly, Enlighten Righteously


Study Fa without idling, changing in the process

Firmly believe without budging, coming to fruition—lotus forms


April 6, 2002

Fa Rectifies the Cosmos


Mercy can melt heaven and earth into spring

Righteous thought can save people of the world


April 6, 2002

Dafa Is Good


Falun Dafa is good
The vast firmament is lit by Fa’s light

The great force of Fa-rectification passes

Only then are the boundless wonders known


Falun Dafa is good
Gradually entering the human world
All beings, do not be impatient
Gods and Buddhas are already smiling


April 25, 2002

Bell Tower


Peals of sound shake the Fa world

The voice of Fa spreads in ten directions


May 5, 2002

Drum Tower


When the mallet strikes, one knows to advance wholeheartedly

Fa drums awaken humans, knocking them out of confusion


May 5, 2002

Buddha Fa Is Boundless


Incense burners draw all ghosts disrupting Fa

Treasured tripods melt the deities denying Fa


May 5, 2002

Entering the Gate of No-Life


Riding a tiger, it’s hard to get off
Humans want to gamble with Gods
Evil ones go to the extreme
Fully blocking their own life’s path


May 13, 2002



Coming with true principles of free will,

With a light and easy spirit, traversing the four seas[9]

The Fa principles spread everywhere in the human world

Fully laden with living beings, the Fa boat sails


May 13, 2002

Righteous Thought, Righteous Action


Great enlightened beings fear no hardship

Their will is cast of diamond

Life or death, they have no attachment

Forthright and broad-minded on the road of Fa-rectification


May 29, 2002

The Path to Divinity Is Difficult


A long, long time—ten thousand lifetimes of predestination

Dafa, like a thread, strings them together

Amidst tribulation, the gold body is refined

There is no reason for steps so slow


May 30, 2002

Righteous Gods


Righteous thought, righteous action
Advance wholeheartedly, do not stop
Purge the ghosts that disrupt Fa
Treat all beings with kindness



May 30, 2002

The Sky Is Clear Again


The sky is dim, dim; the earth dark, dark
Divine thunder explodes, dark dense haze disperses
Sweeping away rotten ghosts that disrupt Fa
Do not say the compassionate heart is inadequate


June 16, 2002
Written for the Midwestern United States Fa Conference

Shock and Frighten


Divine pens shock humans and demons

Like sharp blades, they excise rotten ghosts

Old forces do not respect Fa

A flourish of brushes quells the wild surge


July 28, 2002

Hurry Up and Speak


Dafa disciples, speak the truth,
From your mouths, sharp swords all at once shoot forth.
Piercing through the lies of rotten ghosts,
Seize the moment to rescue and save—hurry up and speak


August 21, 2002


Dafa disciples, wipe away the tears,
Satan the devil has completely crumbled.
Speak the truth, send forth righteous thoughts,
Expose the lies, clear out rotten ghosts.


September 1, 2002

Who Is in the Maze


Very fine, very tiny—a speck of dust

All beings created are buried in dirt

In the maze, worldly humans can obtain Fa

Yet the foolish and crazy are outside the earthly world


September 5, 2002

The Net Is Closing


The violent evil runs wildhow much longer
The chilly autumn wind is already here
Rotten ghosts tremble at their core
In the final days, see their despair


September 14, 2002



Ten years of spreading Fa—the grand gate is open

How many beings not able to enter

Lost in the world, forgetting their origin

As the fierce winds blow, they follow the decline


December 12, 2002

The Might of God


The dust vanishes, the fog lifts, and the air gradually clears

Worldly humans wake from confusion, eyes filled with awe

Dafa’s great force flows over the human world

Look again, Gods and Buddhas walk on earth


December 28, 2002

The 25th day of the 11th month, the Year of Ren Wu in the lunar calendar

Surround and Exterminate


Heaven and earth turn upside down, human demons are vicious

Deceiving the world with massive lies; sinister winds are fierce

Dafa disciples speak the truth

The Fa-power of righteous thought strikes demon caves


January 23, 2003

Plum Blossoms

Written in the style of a Yuan Dynasty lyric poem


Like pure lotus in the muddy world—

millions and billions of plum blossoms

In the bitter wind, looking more lovely

Day after day, it snows and rains—

tears of Gods and Buddhas

Longing for plum blossoms to return

Don’t get lost in worldly attachments

Be steadfast in righteous thought

Through the ages to the present

Just for this one time


January 28, 2003

Descending to Earth


While Falun rotates, there must be madness,

Exhausting the nation’s resources, they’re busy because of me.

I quietly watch these clowns, their demon show ending,

All that remains is the last of the dirt blowing in the wind.

Five thousand years of samsara, clouds and rain,

Brush away the coating of dust, see the truth as it is

In the great play, who[10] is in the leading role –

Coming to the play only for living beings.


The 29th day of the 12th month, the Year of Ren Wu in the lunar calendar

January 31, 2003

Dafa’s Journey

Written in the style of a Song Dynasty lyric poem


Falun Dafa

Deep and immeasurable

Forms the vast firmament

Creates all beings

Three true words

The principles are simple, the words are clear

Commoners knowing surface meanings are richly blessed

Officials knowing shallow meanings see clearly as in a mirror

A king knowing the principles

Brings stability to the country

Peace reigns

Prosperity prevails

Monarchs and ministers are upright

Fortune continues life after life

People are safe and settled

The five grains are harvested year after year

Cultivators are more clear

Once they obtain Fa and enter the Way

They advance wholeheartedly, cultivate solidly, form Gong and Fa

Opposing persecution

Rescuing and saving beings

Journeying on a God’s path


March 2, 2003

The 30th day of the first month, the Year of Guiwei in the lunar calendar

In One Thought


Openly and magnanimously, I rectify the vast firmament

Great adversity accompanies me on my journey of heaven and earth

Attaining credit and virtue is of no concern

Rectifying heaven, rectifying earth, rectifying all beings

With true thought, a grand wish and diamond will

Creating the great vastness again in one thought


The 13th day of the fifth month, the Year of Guiwei in the lunar calendar

Tang Wind


The body is in this mountain

The spirit is wandering in divine realms

Whoever is from the ancient Central Plains

Does not know the wind of the Great Tang Dynasty


The sixth month, the Year of Guiwei in the lunar calendar

Watch Carefully


Even though the world is small

It fully reflects the vast firmament

The skies are filled with eyes

All gods are focusing here

The firmament is formed again

Heaven and earth again created

You want this, he wants that

Sorrowful and laughable

The Lord of Fa rectifies the firmament

What can escape


June 19, 2003

Reading Students’ Articles


Sharp pens write brilliant articles

Words powerful, sentences profound

The body of science is full of holes

The evil party is stripped of its clothes


July 22, 2003

Turbulent Times 

Written in the style of a Song Dynasty lyric poem


The Central Plains for about five thousand years

With each dynasty and generation, new faces appear

At the end of an era, the heavens have no Dao

Humans commit evil and demonic deeds

Jackals and wolves roam the world

The treacherous party is led by demons

Not that there isn’t retribution for evil

The great force is fast approaching


August 1, 2003

From the View of Fa-Rectification

Written in the style of a Song Dynasty lyric poem


Han Xin[11] won the land for the Han Dynasty

Taizong[12] of the Great Tang Dynasty expanded the territory

Yue Fei[13] and the Sixth Son[14] defended the Central Plains

For what—

All beings come here to obtain Fa


August 15, 2003



Galloping ten thousand miles, breaking demon formations

Killing all evil schemers[15], eliminating wicked gods

Who cares about your thick fog or fierce wind swirling

Mountain rains along the way wash off dust from the expedition


September 2, 2003

Be Rational, Awaken


Rest momentarily for self-reflection, add righteous thoughts

Analyze shortcomings explicitly, advance again wholeheartedly


September 4, 2003

A Diamond Will


The autumn sky is high, the air is clearing

The dense dark haze is gone

Hours and days counted on fingers

Little remains as the vast firmament fades

Lost beings each act recklessly

Not knowing great danger approaches

While great efforts are made to prevent the breakdown

How can rotten ghosts be allowed to interfere

Will and thought surpass diamond

The macro and the micro are done by me


September 4, 2003

Fa Rectifies All Things


Charging beyond the Three Realms

The emptiness and nothingness displays the great cosmos

With Fa rectified, heaven and earth last

About to rest, yet evil rises again

The Four Elements[16] have been eroded

The Old Fa disintegrates

The celestial body is boundlessly huge

The cosmic body is even more vast, to the extreme

The vast firmament has been far surpassed

The paramount position is more gorgeous

The heroic spirit by nature is great

Even time does not wear it down

Thought is like a diamond will

All are in line with Dafa principles


September 20, 2003

The Temple of Dragon Spring


A magnificent ancient temple in dense woods

Mists at dawn curl from the pond’s surface

Its towers and pavilions under white clouds

The new Tang-style temple has true deities


September 30, 2003

Dafa Disciples                       

Written in the style of a Song Dynasty lyric poem


Dafa disciples

Encounter hardships in the Central Plains

Heaven and earth have no Dao, rotten ghosts run wild

The great force of Fa-rectification is right before one’s eyes

Fa rectifies the human world

Dafa disciples

Take upon their shoulders heavy responsibilities

Rescuing and saving all beings, speaking the truth

Eliminating the poisonous scourge, Fa is boundless

The journey to divinity is not that long


October 1, 2003

Falun Turns Constantly                                


Dafa embraces and harmonizes, and heaven and earth is rectified

The Lord of Fa is merciful, and creates the vast firmament


October 3, 2003

Solemn Vow, Great Wish


So many changes endured—the grand wish fulfilled

The years and months pass by in a single thought


October 7, 2003

Save the Vast Firmament


Never has it happened in the past or present

In the future, heaven and earth last forever

Look at the ancient, eternal great heavens         

Who still dares to descend again


October 12, 2003

Inexorable Doom                              

Written in the style of a Yuan Dynasty lyric poem


The vast land of the Central Plains

Five thousand years of civilization

Winds and waves churn constantly

From the west comes the specter

Harming all beings

And damaging ancient traditions

Humans, quickly awaken

On the Divine Continent, Dafa starts its course


November 11, 2003



The world’s morality slips day by day, everyone furthers the process

Rotten ghosts take the lead, and humans follow

I worry about the people of the world

Humans don’t care about themselves


November 20, 2003


Written in the style of a Yuan Dynasty lyric poem


Tens of thousands of pure lotus I planted

All bloom in the bitter cold despite the snow

The sky clears and spring comes, filling the garden

Divine flowers display hundreds of forms

Fragrant breezes permeating, wafting beyond the heavens


December 1, 2003


Written in the style of a Yuan Dynasty lyric poem


Cultivation is not difficult

The earthly heart is hard to discard

So many attachments—when shall they be severed?

Everyone knows the sea of suffering has no shore

If the will is not firm

Barriers are like mountains

How to transcend the mortal world


January 1, 2004

Fragrant Lotus                      


The pure lotus is born from Fa

Mercy spreads the fragrant scent

And sprinkles sweet dew on the human world

The lotus blooms throughout the court of heaven


The First Day of 2004

When Fa Rectifies the Human World                      


Rotten ghosts are already exterminated

Evil schemers have become bloody pus

Humans, for whatever they have done

Must suffer the tyranny of fatal pestilence


January 1, 2004


Written in the style of a Yuan Dynasty lyric poem


Crazy, arrogant, mad

Jumping to the roof beam

The crow tries to block the sun

Stupidity, evil and lies

All are fully exposed

Flames of jealousy burn its heart, showing its original form

The toad leaps into boiling oil


January 8, 2004

Don’t Be Sad                         


Your body lies in prison—don’t be sorrowful, don’t be sad

With righteous thoughts and righteous actions, Fa is here

Calmly reflect on how many attachments you have

As you get rid of human mentality, evil is naturally defeated


January 13, 2004

Waist-Drum Team

Written in the style of a Yuan Dynasty lyric poem


Waist-drum formation

Gods in Fa

Each thump-thump of Fa Drums is Zhen-Shan-Ren

In the Three Realms, eliminating evil and saving the world’s people

Majestic presence and righteous thought shake the gates of heaven

Rotten ghosts—where can they run


January 22, 2004



Thousands of laborious hardships for fifteen autumns

Who knows the suffering and worry of Fa-rectification

Only so that living beings can be saved

Not stopping until beyond the macro and the micro


January 22, 2004

Master-Disciple Grace


Violent evil has raged four years

With a steady helm, bearings are not lost

Fa disciples experience evil’s trials

Heavy pressure does not change their will

Master and disciples have no use for sentiment

Buddha’s grace transforms heaven and earth

Disciples’ righteous thoughts are strong

Master has the power to turn the tide


February 1, 2004

Gods Awaken


Living beings, quickly wake up

In the Central Plains, traps are set

All have come for Fa

Why can’t you figure it out


February 17, 2004

Gates of Heaven Are Already Open


Buddha’s grace is vast, saving all beings

Dafa comes, recreating heaven and earth

His grand wish[17] secures the firmament, heaven and earth

Rectifying the micro, rectifying the macro, rectifying the Three Gifts

The world’s people can awaken, and righteous thoughts come out

The eternal gates of heaven are open from now on


February 28, 2004

What’s There to Fear


If you have fear, they will grab you

Once your thought is righteous, evil will collapse

People practicing cultivation, filled with Fa

Sending righteous thoughts, exploding rotten ghosts

Gods are in the world, validating Fa


February 29, 2004

The Rotating Wheel[18]


One hundred years of the Red Dynasty—a path of constant killing

Heaven and earth turned upside down—a play that fools all China

You clearly see red flowers flourishing at this moment

But do you know the lotus will bloom in the future


March 5, 2004

The Great Kalpa


Fa sets right the vast firmament, clearing out old dust

Heaven and earth are vast and boundless, spring is everywhere

When the greatest force of all ages passes

Look again—a new universe of Buddhas, Daos, and Gods


March 8, 2004



(by Translator)

[1] Clear wisdom could refer to //clearwisdom.net and //minghui.ca websites.

[2] New life could refer to //xinsheng.net website.

[3] People could refer to //renminbao.com website.

[4] Falun Dafa could refer to //falundafa.org website.

[5] Pure insight could refer to //pureinsight.org website.

[6] The ninth heaven is an idiom for the highest heaven.

[7] The Central Plains is a translation for 中原, which historically refers to the central part of China and thus can also be translated as “central China.”  中原 can also refer to China in general.

[8] The Three Gifts refers heaven, earth, and humans.

[9] 四海, the four seas, is a Chinese way of describing the whole world, similar to the English expression “the seven seas.”

[10] “Who” can be singular or plural in Chinese.

[11] Han Xin was a well-known general who helped establish the Han Dynasty (206 B.C. – A.D. 220). He is considered a genius in Chinese military history.

[12] “Taizong” refers to Tang Taizong of the Tang Dynasty  (A.D. 618. – A.D. 907), the emperor who reigned between A.D. 626 and A.D. 649.  Taizong is one of the most respected emperors, known for establishing the most prosperous, influential, and culturally diverse dynasty in Chinese history.

[13] Yue Fei (A.D. 1103– A.D. 1142) is a well-known and widely respected national hero of the South Song Dynasty (A.D. 960 – A.D. 1279), who defended China against invasions from the northern nations.

[14] “The Sixth Son” refers to Yang Yanzhao (A.D. 958 – A.D.1014), a national hero and great general in the North Song Dynasty, who died in one of the battles against invasions from the north.

[15] Literal translation is “Black hands.”

[16] “The Four Elements” refers to “earth, fire, water and air.”

[17] 洪愿 can also be translated as “Hong wishes to” or “Hong’s wish,” where “Hong” refers to one of the characters in the author’s name. The character means “grand, macro, vast.” 

[18] Alternative translation: “Turning the Wheel.”